Department Chairperson
Alessandro Massarotti
Office: Shields Science Center 309
Phone: 5085651430
amassarotti@stonehill.edu
A minor program in Physics is an excellent complement to programs in Mathematics, Chemistry, Computer Science, or Life Sciences, especially for students planning on teaching at the secondary level, or for elementary education students with an interest in science. The minor is also useful for Business or Economics majors who will seek employment in sciencerelated businesses.
The minor in Physics requires the completion of six courses.
Complete Four Required Courses
Code  Course  Credits 

PHY 121 
Physics IOffered: Fall Semester Brief introduction to vectors and basic concepts of calculus; kinematics; Newton’s laws, force, work and power; conservative forces, potential energy; momentum, collisions; rotational motion, angular momentum, torque; oscillations, simple harmonic motion; gravitation and planetary motion; fluid dynamics; kinetic theory of gases, thermodynamics; heat capacity and transport.
Corequisite(s): MTH 125. 
4 
PHY 122 
Physics IIOffered: Spring Semester Brief introduction to the basic concepts of vector calculus, such as line and surface integrals, integral version of Gauss’ theorem and Stokes’ theorem; Coulomb’s law, insulators and metals; electrostatic induction, potential energy; capacitance; currents, resistance, basic circuits, batteries; magnetism and currents; Ampere’s law; motion of free charges in magnetic fields, mass spectroscopy; magnetic induction, Faraday’s law; Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic waves; geometric and wave optics; light as photons, photoelectric effect.
Corequisite(s): MTH 126. 
4 
PHY 221 
Physics IIIOffered: Fall Semester Mechanical and electrical examples of damped, forced and resonant oscillations; the mechanical wave equation via Newton’s mechanics; the electromagnetic wave equation via Maxwell’s equations; traveling sound and electromagnetic waves; diffraction and interference, geometrical limit of wave optics.

4 
LC 235 
Learning Community: Quantum Waves (WID) *, OROffered: Spring 2018 With the creation of quantum mechanics in the 1920s, physicists conceived of a new and unexpected kind of wave that is neither a Newtonian (c. 1700) mechanical wave nor a Maxwellian (c. 1860) electromagnetic wave. These mysterious DeBroglie  Schroedinger waves of probability are the essence of quantum mechanics. These waves determine the structure of atoms and molecules, i.e. they are the deepest foundation of both physics and chemistry. While the mathematics of these quantum waves is similar to the classical waves already studied in PHY 221 and MTH 261, the physical, chemical, and philosophical consequences are breathtakingly different.
Corequisite(s): Students must also take MTH 261 and PHY 221 as part of this Learning Community. 
3 
MTH 261 
Multivariable CalculusOffered: Fall Semester Continuation of the sequence begun in Calculus I and II. Functions of several variables, analytic geometry, vectors, partial derivatives, multiple integration.

4 
PHY 323 
Quantum PhysicsOffered: Not Offered 20152016 Schroedinger wave equation and the statistical interpretation of the wave function; the time independent equation in one dimension  free particle, square wells, barriers, tunneling; the equation in three dimensions  hydrogen atom and angular momentum; identical particles and spin; multiparticle states and entanglement; introduction to solids and Block theorem.

3 
CHM 333 
Physical Chemistry IOffered: Fall Semester This course provides indepth exploration of key chemistry topics in thermodynamics and kinetics. Topics include: gas laws, energy transfer, phase equilibrium, chemical potential, properties of solutions, and kinetic theory and mechanism. Specific applications of physical chemistry are given in terms of material science, nanoscience, biochemistry, environmental chemistry, and technology.

4 
Complete Two UpperLevel Elective Courses
Code  Course  Credits 

PHY 223 
Introduction to Physics ComputingOffered: Offered Periodically This course teaches how to use software (MATLAB, Mathematica, other) to solve Physics problems. Students learn LaTex, the software used writing research articles. Topics range from the use of derivatives and integrals to complex variables, differential equations, systems of differential equations, partial differential equations and systems, with applications to mechanics, statistical mechanics, wave motion in one and two dimensions and others. We will explore solutions to the wave equations, diffusion equation and Schroedinger's equation.

3 
PHY 310 
Introduction to OpticsOffered: Offered Periodically Covers the basics concepts and methods of optics, including geometrical and wave optics, polarization, lenses and mirrors, coherence, freespace propagation, Fourier optics, interference and diffraction. Optical devices such as the lasers and interferometers are briefly discussed, and the quantum mechanical description of light in terms of photons is introduced.

3 
PHY 321 
Statistical PhysicsOffered: Spring Semester An introduction to the macroscopic view of thermodynamics: temperature, heat, work, entropy, equations of state, engines and refrigerators. Introduction to the microscopic or statistical view: MaxwellBoltzmann distribution; microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical distributions; quantum statistics of bosons and fermions; black body radiation; electronic and thermal properties of quantum liquids and solids.

3 
PHY 323 
Quantum PhysicsOffered: Not Offered 20152016 Schroedinger wave equation and the statistical interpretation of the wave function; the time independent equation in one dimension  free particle, square wells, barriers, tunneling; the equation in three dimensions  hydrogen atom and angular momentum; identical particles and spin; multiparticle states and entanglement; introduction to solids and Block theorem.

3 
PHY 324 
ElectromagnetismOffered: Not Offered 20152016 The sources, the properties and the waves of electromagnetic fields and potentials; Boundary value problems in electrostatics; Magnetostatics and Faraday's law; Electromagnetic Properties of media: dielectrics, diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials; Maxwell's equations in differential form; Relativistic basis of electromagnetism; Electromagnetic basis of geometric and wave optics: lenses, mirrors, diffraction, polarization.

3 
PHY 325 
ElectronicsOffered: Fall Semester Analog electronic circuits, from RL, RC, RLC filters to transistors and operational amplifiers; introduction to digital circuits. The course includes both theory and a strong lab component.

4 
PHY 401 
Great Experiments in Modern Physics IOffered: Not Offered 20152016 Available experiments include: Cavendish experiment for the gravitational constant, Young's twoslit interference experiment, Fizeau's rotating mirror experiment for the speed of light, Maxwell's speed of light via electrical measurements, Thomson's experiment for the electron charge/mass ratio, Millikan's experiment for the electron charge, EinsteinPerrin's for Boltzmann's constant, Planck's constant via photoelectric effect, Planck's constant via hydrogen spectrum, Rutherford's experiment for nuclear size, FrankHertz experiment on inelastic electronatom collisions. PHY 401 may be elected without PHY 402; however, to complete all the experiments students will need both semesters. See Program Director. 
3 
PHY 402 
Great Experiments in Modern Physics IIOffered: Not Offered 20152016 Available experiments include: Cavendish experiment for the gravitational constant, Young's twoslit interference experiment, Fizeau's rotating mirror experiment for the speed of light, Maxwell's speed of light via electrical measurements, Thomson's experiment for the electron charge/mass ratio, Millikan's experiment for the electron charge, EinsteinPerrin's for Boltzmann's constant, Planck's constant via photoelectric effect, Planck's constant via hydrogen spectrum, Rutherford's experiment for nuclear size, FrankHertz experiment on inelastic electronatom collisions.

3 
Note
Students may have one of the following courses approved as a substitute for an upperlevel course above with the approval of the program director.
Code  Course  Credits 

ENV 350 
Climate ScienceOffered: Alternate Years: Spring 2018, 2020 An overview of the Earth's climate system, including major physical and chemical components and interactions. Students will acquire the scientific perspective necessary to competently assess issues related to current climate change concerns.

3 
ENV 360 
Introduction to OceanographyOffered: Alternate Years: Fall 2017, 2019 This course is designed to be a fundamental introduction to ocean sciences. Students will explore the physical and biological processes that govern the ocean's circulation and marine life. Topics include waves and currents, marine life and ecosystems, tides, beach erosion and the way the ocean is being affected by global climate change. This course includes substantial field work off campus, and requires walking outdoors over uneven terrain, often in less than ideal weather. Students who may have difficulty navigating uneven terrain should contact the Office of Accessibility Resources at 5085651306 or accessibilityresources@stonehill.edu at least two weeks in advance of the course to allow for planning around accommodation needs. 
3 
MTH 363 
Modern GeometryOffered: Fall Semester The axiomatic approach of Hilbert to Euclid’s Elements. Geometry from the viewpoint of rigid transformations. NonEuclidean Geometry. The roles of coordinates, both global and local. Geometrizations of low dimensional manifolds.

3 
MTH 393 
Numerical AnalysisOffered: Alternate Years: Spring 2016, 2018 Both theoretical and practical problems in the computational aspects of mathematics: approximation of functions, numerical differentiation, solutions to algebraic and differential equations; topics in linear algebra.

3 