Department ChairpersonAlessandro Massarotti
Office: Shields Science Center 309
Phone: 5085651430
amassarotti@stonehill.edu
The B.S. in Astronomy requires the completion of twentytwo courses.
Complete the Following Required Courses
Code  Course  Credits 

Typically Taken Freshman Year  
CHM 113 
General Chemistry IOffered: Fall and Spring Semesters The fundamentals of chemistry are covered including: matter and measurement, atomic structure and the periodic table, chemical reactions and stoichiometry, chemical bonding, thermodynamics, and an introduction to chemical kinetics and equilibrium.

4 
MTH 125 
Calculus IOffered: Fall and Spring Semesters Calculus of a single variable: functions, limits, derivatives, differentiation rules, applications of derivatives, integrals, techniques of integration, applications of integration, infinite sequences and series, first and second order differential equations. May not receive credit for both MTH 125 and MTH 119.

4 
MTH 126 
Calculus IIOffered: Fall and Spring Semesters Calculus of a single variable: functions, limits, derivatives, differentiation rules, applications of derivatives, integrals, techniques of integration, applications of integration, infinite sequences and series, first and second order differential equations.

4 
PHY 105 
Physics Problem Solving IOffered: Spring Semester This series of onecredit courses is meant to help students integrate the knowledge acquired in several physics topics from freshman to senior year. The topics covered range from engineering applications of physics concepts to advanced topics in physics and astrophysics. Students are given complex and multifaceted problems that they can study individually and in groups with the help of the Physics faculty.
Corequisite(s): PHY 122 
1 
PHY 121 
Physics IOffered: Fall Semester Brief introduction to vectors and basic concepts of calculus; kinematics; Newton’s laws, force, work and power; conservative forces, potential energy; momentum, collisions; rotational motion, angular momentum, torque; oscillations, simple harmonic motion; gravitation and planetary motion; fluid dynamics; kinetic theory of gases, thermodynamics; heat capacity and transport.
Corequisite(s): MTH 125. 
4 
PHY 122 
Physics IIOffered: Spring Semester Brief introduction to the basic concepts of vector calculus, such as line and surface integrals, integral version of Gauss’ theorem and Stokes’ theorem; Coulomb’s law, insulators and metals; electrostatic induction, potential energy; capacitance; currents, resistance, basic circuits, batteries; magnetism and currents; Ampere’s law; motion of free charges in magnetic fields, mass spectroscopy; magnetic induction, Faraday’s law; Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic waves; geometric and wave optics; light as photons, photoelectric effect.
Corequisite(s): MTH 126. 
4 
Typically Taken Sophomore Year  
MTH 251 
Linear AlgebraOffered: Spring Semester The development of the methods and underlying ideas for solving systems of linear equations. Topics include: vectors, matrices, linear transformations, determinants and eigenvectors. Use of mathematical software MAPLE, in applications.

4 
MTH 261 
Multivariable CalculusOffered: Fall Semester Continuation of the sequence begun in Calculus I and II. Functions of several variables, analytic geometry, vectors, partial derivatives, multiple integration.

4 
LC 235 
Learning Community: Quantum Waves (WID)Offered: Spring 2018 With the creation of quantum mechanics in the 1920s, physicists conceived of a new and unexpected kind of wave that is neither a Newtonian (c. 1700) mechanical wave nor a Maxwellian (c. 1860) electromagnetic wave. These mysterious DeBroglie  Schroedinger waves of probability are the essence of quantum mechanics. These waves determine the structure of atoms and molecules, i.e. they are the deepest foundation of both physics and chemistry. While the mathematics of these quantum waves is similar to the classical waves already studied in PHY 221 and MTH 261, the physical, chemical, and philosophical consequences are breathtakingly different.
Corequisite(s): Students must also take MTH 261 and PHY 221 as part of this Learning Community. 
3 
PHY 205 
Physics Problem Solving IIOffered: Spring Semester This series of onecredit courses is meant to help students integrate the knowledge acquired in several physics topics from freshman to senior year. The topics covered range from engineering applications of physics concepts to advanced topics in physics and astrophysics. Students are given complex and multifaceted problems that they can study individually and in groups with the help of the Physics faculty.
Corequisite(s): LC 235  Learning Community: Quantum Waves (WID) 
1 
PHY 221 
Physics IIIOffered: Fall Semester Mechanical and electrical examples of damped, forced and resonant oscillations; the mechanical wave equation via Newton’s mechanics; the electromagnetic wave equation via Maxwell’s equations; traveling sound and electromagnetic waves; diffraction and interference, geometrical limit of wave optics.

4 
PHY 222 
Classical MechanicsOffered: Fall Semester Lagrange's equations; central forces; kinematics and equations of motion for rigid bodies; Hamilton's equations; HamiltonJacobi equations; small oscillations; elements of fluid dynamics.

3 
PHY 223 
Introduction to Physics ComputingOffered: Offered Periodically This course teaches how to use software (MATLAB, Mathematica, other) to solve Physics problems. Students learn LaTex, the software used writing research articles. Topics range from the use of derivatives and integrals to complex variables, differential equations, systems of differential equations, partial differential equations and systems, with applications to mechanics, statistical mechanics, wave motion in one and two dimensions and others. We will explore solutions to the wave equations, diffusion equation and Schroedinger's equation.

3 
Typically Taken Junior and Senior Years  
PHY 305 
Physics Problem Solving IIIOffered: Spring Semester This series of onecredit courses is meant to help students integrate the knowledge acquired in several physics topics from freshman to senior year. The topics covered range from engineering applications of physics concepts to advanced topics in physics and astrophysics. Students are given complex and multifaceted problems that they can study individually and in groups with the help of the Physics faculty. Each spring semester there will be four separate sections of the course for, respectively, PHY 105 for freshmen, PHY 205 for sophomores, PHY 305 for juniors and PHY 405 for seniors. Seniors will read research papers and present them to the rest of the class.Completion of the four courses will satisfy the Capstone requirement for Physics and Astronomy majors. 
1 
PHY 321 
Statistical PhysicsOffered: Spring Semester An introduction to the macroscopic view of thermodynamics: temperature, heat, work, entropy, equations of state, engines and refrigerators. Introduction to the microscopic or statistical view: MaxwellBoltzmann distribution; microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical distributions; quantum statistics of bosons and fermions; black body radiation; electronic and thermal properties of quantum liquids and solids.

3 
PHY 322 
Astrophysics and CosmologyOffered: Spring Semester Introduction to the structure of stars and hydrostatic equilibrium; stellar nuclear fusion; stellar evolution, the ultimate fate of stars, stellar superwinds and supernovae; stellar remnants: white dwarfs, neutron stars and degeneracy pressure; xray sources; black holes and accretion disks; how relativity predicts the expansion of the universe; quasars and gamma ray bursts; modern cosmology: microwave background radiation; dark matter; vacuum energy; the formation of galaxies from gravitational instability; primordial synthesis of the elements; the Big Bang as a test of our high energy physics theories.

3 
PHY 323 
Quantum PhysicsOffered: Not Offered 20152016 Schroedinger wave equation and the statistical interpretation of the wave function; the time independent equation in one dimension  free particle, square wells, barriers, tunneling; the equation in three dimensions  hydrogen atom and angular momentum; identical particles and spin; multiparticle states and entanglement; introduction to solids and Block theorem.

3 
PHY 324 
ElectromagnetismOffered: Not Offered 20152016 The sources, the properties and the waves of electromagnetic fields and potentials; Boundary value problems in electrostatics; Magnetostatics and Faraday's law; Electromagnetic Properties of media: dielectrics, diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials; Maxwell's equations in differential form; Relativistic basis of electromagnetism; Electromagnetic basis of geometric and wave optics: lenses, mirrors, diffraction, polarization.

3 
PHY 405 
Physics Problem Solving IVOffered: Spring Semester This series of onecredit courses is meant to help students integrate the knowledge acquired in several physics topics from freshman to senior year. The topics covered range from engineering applications of physics concepts to advanced topics in physics and astrophysics. Students are given complex and multifaceted problems that they can study individually and in groups with the help of the Physics faculty. Each spring semester there will be four separate sections of the course for, respectively, PHY 105 for freshmen, PHY 205 for sophomores, PHY 305 for juniors and PHY 405 for seniors. Seniors will read research papers and present them to the rest of the class.Completion of the four courses will satisfy the Capstone requirement for Physics and Astronomy majors. 
1 
Note: Completion of PHY 105, 204, 305 & 405 fulfills the Physics Capstone. 
Complete Two of the Following Courses
Code  Course  Credits 

PHY 326 
GeophysicsOffered: Offered Periodically Students will study creeping flow mantle; physical chemical evidence of plate tectonics; planetary tomography; ridges subduction zones; formation continental crust; plumes hot spot volcanism; seafloor depth versus age, lithosphere in time; model of heat diffusion; pressure, gravity, sound speed composition of lithosphere, mantle and core; viscous flow, stress, strain, strain rate; equations governing fluid flow; viscosity of the mantle; plate tectonics heat flow, Earth heat engine; convection plate motion; and past Earth origins of plate tectonics.

3 
PHY 328 
Planetary AstrophysicsOffered: Offered Periodically Rocky planets, icy planets, giants; solar nebula and planets' formation by core accretion and planets' migration; present data frequency of planets around stars; dust to planetesimals to planets; comparative analysis of rocky planets in solar system; plate tectonics, stagnant lid describing Mars, Venus and Earth; whole planet heat structure models of planets in solar system; modeling of superEarths other solar systems; outer moons tides; search for life on planets and moons; habitable zone around stars.

3 
PHY 404 
Topics in AstronomyOffered: Not Offered 20152016 The mechanism for PHY 404 is the same as for PHY 403: examples are PHY 404  Research in Extrasolar Planets, PHY 404  Stellar Evolution or PHY 404  Cosmology.

3 
Complete One of the Following Electives
Code  Course  Credits 

PHY 310 
Introduction to OpticsOffered: Offered Periodically Covers the basics concepts and methods of optics, including geometrical and wave optics, polarization, lenses and mirrors, coherence, freespace propagation, Fourier optics, interference and diffraction. Optical devices such as the lasers and interferometers are briefly discussed, and the quantum mechanical description of light in terms of photons is introduced.

3 
PHY 327 
Introduction to Fluid MechanicsOffered: Offered Periodically Fluid dynamics is important in describing stellar, planetary dynamics (mantle, oceans and atmosphere), and multiple engineering applications. The course covers the following: Dissipationless fluids: conservation of mass, Euler's equation, equation of continuity, conservation of energy, entropy, Bernoulli's equation, adiabatic, isothermal fluids, thermal and mechanical equilibrium, vorticity, Helmholtz theorems, irrotational flow; Viscous fluids: viscosity, strain rate, stress, NavierStokes equation; waves, instability in fluids, turbulent flow, boundary layer flow, convection; compressible flow, sound waves; aerofoils, KuttaJoukowski theorem.

3 
PHY 401 
Great Experiments in Modern Physics IOffered: Not Offered 20152016 Available experiments include: Cavendish experiment for the gravitational constant, Young's twoslit interference experiment, Fizeau's rotating mirror experiment for the speed of light, Maxwell's speed of light via electrical measurements, Thomson's experiment for the electron charge/mass ratio, Millikan's experiment for the electron charge, EinsteinPerrin's for Boltzmann's constant, Planck's constant via photoelectric effect, Planck's constant via hydrogen spectrum, Rutherford's experiment for nuclear size, FrankHertz experiment on inelastic electronatom collisions. PHY 401 may be elected without PHY 402; however, to complete all the experiments students will need both semesters. See Program Director. 
3 
PHY 402 
Great Experiments in Modern Physics IIOffered: Not Offered 20152016 Available experiments include: Cavendish experiment for the gravitational constant, Young's twoslit interference experiment, Fizeau's rotating mirror experiment for the speed of light, Maxwell's speed of light via electrical measurements, Thomson's experiment for the electron charge/mass ratio, Millikan's experiment for the electron charge, EinsteinPerrin's for Boltzmann's constant, Planck's constant via photoelectric effect, Planck's constant via hydrogen spectrum, Rutherford's experiment for nuclear size, FrankHertz experiment on inelastic electronatom collisions.

3 